Miketz: Chanukah wisdom ~ Wonders of The Holy Tongue

MiketzChanukah

Chanukah Wisdom

The first appearance of the word “חכם” in Scripture is in this week’s Torah portion, in connection to Joseph’s advice to Pharaoh: 

Now let Pharaoh seek out a discerning and wise man[וְחָכָם]and set him over the land of Egypt (Gen.41:33).

The Zohar (Vol. I, 130b) alludes to the connection between “חכמה” and the word “מְחַכֵּה”, waiting: No eye had ever seen, O God, beside You, what He will do for those who wait [מְחַכֵּה] for Him (Isa. 64:3). What does it mean, to wait for Him? As it states: Elihu waited [חִכָּה] before addressing Job (Job 32:4).

The Zohar goes on to say that meaning of “חכמה” is the ability to infer and extract information: And these are the ones who press upon a word of wisdom and extract from it, and wait (ומחכאן) for it, to learn the clarification of the matter.1

Shoresh Yesha (entry ‘חכם’) suggests two reasons for the closeness of the words “,חכם””מחכה”(wait), and “חך”(palate)2: The wise man does not speak rashly, waiting[to think] before he speaks. He then speaks words that are sweet and pleasant to the palate.3

Based on the above, let’s explore the gamut of words in the Holy Tongue that contain the 2-letter string, ‘.חכ’

In Sefer Hashorashim, Radak lists numerous verses where the wordחֵךְ” “,palate,appears.4He then cites his father, who wrote that the root of ‘חך’isחנך’,’ and the “dagesh” that appears in these verses is in place of the letter “nun.”5Radak then adds a second meaning to this root – “חַכָּה”(fishing hook), since the hook latches onto the fish in its palate.6

In Aramaic, the word “חייכא” is the translation of the verb לצחוק”,” to laugh, an act that involves the palate(from which derives the word חיוך”,”smilein latter-day Hebrew).7

Until now, we have found a connection between words with the letters ‘חך’and the “חֵךְ”palate itself. However, there remains one word that seemingly bears no connection to חֵךְ”,” namely, the word “חַכְלִילִי”that Jacob used in his deathbed blessings for Judah: the eyes are red [חַכְלִילִי עֵינַיִם] from wine(Gen.49:21). However, our Sages teach us that this word is also based on the root ‘חך’, stating in Ketubot 111b that חַכְלִילִיmeansכָּלחֵיךשֶׁטוֹעֲמוֹ אוֹמֵר לִי לִי, “Every palatethat tastes it says, ‘For me, for me.’”There is one other instance of “חַכְלִילִי”in Scripture (Prov.23:29-30), and there Solomon appears to hint to the aspect of waiting/pausing(“חַכֵּה”)inherent in the constituent letters ‘חכ’: “Who has redness (חַכְלִילוּת) in the eyes? Those who lingerover wine.” 

It would appear that the role of the palate is to instill in us the characteristic of waiting – both before releasing a word from one’s mouth, and before inserting something into it. Whereas an infant demands immediate satisfaction and does not grasp the unwanted outcomes that are likely to result from putting random items into his mouth, the wise man foresees results in advance. Similarly, the fish is caught by the hook, because instead of waiting and making a careful assessment, it swallows what’s in front of it without hesitation. By contrast, in Scripture we find numerous expressions of praise for the ability to wait, such as the word עקב”,” as explained by Ibn Ezra and others: And all the nations of the world shall bless themselves by your offspring, because [עֵקֶב] you listened to My voice(Gen. 22:18); Ibn Ezra- עקב-the reward that comes at the end. Radak- עקבmeans the reward… just as the עֲקֵב,heel, is the end of the body, so too reward comes at the end…8

In other words, reward depends on the ability to wait and overcome the desire for immediate gratification. Similarly, RSRH (Gen. 15:1) compares the word שכר,rewardto the word סכר,a dam,9meaning water and blessing can only accumulate when they are closed and protected.10

Above, Radak noted that his father showed that ‘חנך’is the root of the word “.חֵךְ”What is the connection between חךand’,חנך’the root for words such as educationandinauguration? Based on the above, the connection is clear. An infant is born without the ability to hold back his desires, and it puts anything and everything into its mouth without compunction. The infant needs his parents and teachers to train and educate [לחנך] him in the value of waiting. Here is the secret of these days of Chanuka, the ability to wait for God’s salvation, as the Rambam states: I will wait for him [the Messiah] every day, that he should come, speedily, in our days!

END

Outtakes:

Why is a wise man referred to as a “chacham?”Let us analyze the depth of this word and concept, so central to Jewish daily life thought.

Our Sages interpret the Scriptural word מְחַכֵּהas an allusion to the חכםin the following teaching (Berachot 34b): “R. Chiya son of Abba said in the name of R. Yochanan: All [the good tidings] that the prophets prophesied were only regarding one who gives his daughter in marriage to a scholar… or who allows a scholar the use of his possessions… But as for the scholars themselves, no eye had ever seen, O God, beside You, what He will do for those who wait מְחַכֵּהforHim(Isa. 64:3). 

While the Talmud does not specify how it sees this as a reference to the Torah scholar, Maharshasuggests(as one possibility) that it is based on the word מְחַכֵּהbeinga permutation of חָכְמָה.

Regarding the link between ‘חך’and ‘חנך’mentioned above, we find a discussion in the Talmud (Chullin103b), regarding the calculation of the olive-sized minimum needed to incur liability for partaking of the limb of a live animal. The Sages discuss whether we also include the amount that may have been caught between his teeth and that which is in the rest of his mouth. In his commentary,Rashistates that we do not include the material that is ‘בֵּין הַחַנִיכַיִם’, i.e., that which is stuck to his ‘חך’ (palate), since only his gullet derived enjoyment from it but not his stomach.11

Thus far, we have found links between all the words that contain the two-letter sequence ‘חכ’, and the word’חיך’ (palate) itself. 

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among the unique characteristics which the Sages ascribe to the wise man, is the trait of waiting and consideration: “A wise man… is not hasty to respond” (Avot 5:7).

As cited above, Radakmentioned that according to his father, R’ Yosef Kimchi, the root of the word ‘חך’ is actually ‘חנך’ (trained/educated). His own explanatory remarks do not reveal any obvious connection between the words palateand train/educate.However, based on what we have suggested here, the two concepts would fit like a hand in glove. As we noted, a child is born without any power to rein in his desires. He would ingest and expel from his palate at will, were it not for his parents and teachers, who teach him the benefit of patience and help him develop the characteristic of being able to wait and delay gratification.

1 וע’ספר לקוטי תורהשקישר עפ”ז גם בין “חיך”ל”חכה”.

2Machberet Menachemlinks three words to the underlying biliteral root ‘חך’: 1) “חַכֵּה”(waiting); 2) “חַכָּה”(fishhook); 3)”חֵך”(palate). However, he does not directly link “חכם”to “חך”or “חכה”, nor (per his usual practice) does he indicate what or even ifa logical connection exists between the words linked to the root. 

3Ohr Chadash (Gen.41:33), also links “חכם”toחך” ,” adding that “חיוך”(smile) derives from “חך”as well.

4וְחֵךְ אֹכֶל יִטְעַם לוֹ(איוב יב:יא),חִכּוֹמַמְתַקִּים(שה”ש ה:טז),וְחִכֵּךְכְּיֵיןהַטּוֹב(שם ז:י),אֶלחִכְּךָשֹׁפָר(הושע ח:א).

5Sefer HaGalui by R’ Yosef Kimchi, entry ‘חך’.

6חבקוק א:טו-כֻּלֹּה בְּחַכָּה הֵעֲלָה;מצ”צ:בחכה-שם כלי צדיה.איוב מ:כה-תִּמְשֹׁךְ לִוְיָתָן בְּחַכָּה.ישעיהו יט:ח-כָּל מַשְׁלִיכֵי בַיְאוֹר חַכָּה.

7בראשית יח:יב -וַתִּצְחַק שָׂרָה בְּקִרְבָּהּ לֵאמֹר אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה לִּי עֶדְנָה;ת”א -וחייכת שרה במעהא למימר בתר דסיבית תהי לי ולימו.בראשית לט:יד -הֵבִיא לָנוּ אִישׁ עִבְרִי לְצַחֶק בָּנוּ; ת”א- איתי לנא גברא עבראה לחיכא בנא.

8ול’חז”ל”עיכוב”בעצמה נובעת מל’מקרא”עקב”.ראה למשל צרור המור (בר’כה:לא),הכוה”ק(שם כז:לו).

9בחילוף אותיות גיכ”ק,וזסשר”ץ-ע’נספח א’ “חילוף אותיות”.

10ורש”ר הירש משווה גם את המלה “חכם”בעצמה ל”אגם” (בחילוף אותיות אחע”ה וגיכ”ק):רש”ר הירש בראשית מא:לג-איש נבון וחכם -‘חכם’קרוב ל’אגם’:קליטת…המצוי.

11Rashi makes a similar link in his comments to Ketubot 39b, where he interprets the Talmudic term ‘חינכי’ as a reference to the ‘חך’.




Mikeitz: How to Charm The Snake ~ Tzvi Abrahams

Parshas מִקֵץ

How to Charm the Snake

נִיחוּש: divination

נַחְשׁוֹן: Nachshon

נָחָשׁ: snake

נְחוֹשֶׁת: copper

נִיחוּשׁ: Divination

וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם יוֹסֵף מָה הַמַּעֲשֶׂה הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם כִּי נַחֵשׁ יְנַחֵשׁ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר כָּמֹנִי
And Yosef said to them, “What is this deed that you have done, is it not obvious to you all that a man like me practices divination?”1

The Ramban defines נִיחוּשׁ as any process that allows one to know the future ahead of time.2

As a young boy, time travel was always a marvel to me. Just to have in one’s hand tomorrow’s newspaper, to know the horse racing results, the stock market gains, the lottery numbers — alas, some things are just not within hand’s reach.

Once, when I was very young, a gypsy woman knocked on our door and asked if she could use the bathroom. In return, she read my mother’s palm. One of the things she told my mother was that her son would become a teacher — little did I know then that I was destined to be a rabbi!

It is known in the Torah that Egypt was the magic capital of the world. They were well versed in being able to read the stars. The heavenly bodies known as mazalosinfluence the world because Hashem channels His energy flow through them, which is why the goyim are called stargazers — because they look into the stars to see what will be. So there is definitely some truth to the art of horoscopes.

One of these arts of divination the Ramban calls Negrormancia/black magic, (hence the word negro), which is a kind of voodoo practice of telling the future by communicating with the dead.

Yosef’s goblet, which was supposedly stolen by the brothers, was no ordinary goblet; Yosef professed that he used it to tell the future.

Lavan’s terafim were also some kind of crystal-ball from which he was able to know the future.

Shlomo HaMelech had knowledge of the chochmas of the chirping of birds, which reveals the future.

So we see many examples in the Torah that this kind of stuff was real. However, one of the rules on entry to the land was not to learn from the goyim, because in Hashem’s eyes, it is an abomination. Rather, we have to be תָּמִים תִּהִיֶה עִם ה’ אֶ-לֹהֶיךָ/pure with Hashem. In other words Hashem does not want us to be lusting after the ways of knowing what will be — rather, what will be will be. Rashi says that we are meant to walk with Hashem בְּתְּמִימִוּת/b’temimus/in purity, not to look into the future, rather to accept with simplicity anything that the future may bring. In doing so, we will be His people and His portion.

And the snake said to Chava, “If you eat from the tree, you will be like G-d, knowing good and bad.”

Divination, as its name depicts, is to be divine, to be like G-d, all-knowing.

Whoever wants to know the future is like someone who, when he first gets a book, turns to the last page to read the outcome. Knowing the future before it happens might seem like the ultimate fulfillment of desire, but really it is cheating the system and cheating oneself. One can’t compare the first time one watched a movie to the second or third time. Not knowing what will be is the excitement of life. If one knows the future, there will be no adrenaline rush, no surprises, no cliff-hangers, just going through the motions. There will be no need for תְּפִילָה, so we will lose our connection to Hashem and to life. The true sense of feeling alive is taking each day as it comes, living each moment, with the complete knowledge that Hashem loves us and that everything’s going to be all right.

In essence, life is a voyage of self-discovery where Hashem is revealing ourselves to ourselves, revealing the power within us after we face and overcome life’s ordeals.

נַחְשׁוֹן: Nachshon

וַיִּקַּח אַהֲרֹן אֶת אֱלִישֶׁבַע בַּת עַמִּינָדָב אֲחוֹת נַחְשׁוֹן לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה
And Aharon took Elisheva, the daughter of Aminadav, the sister of Nachshon, to him as a wife.3

The Gemara in Bava Basra says that one who wants to know how his sons are going to turn out should check out his wife’s brothers, because the majority of the sons are similar to the mother’s brother’s, hence the saying “the apple doesn’t fall far from the tree.”4So too the name נַחְשׁוֹן hints that there is indeed a remote form of נִיחוּשׁ/ knowing the future, which is permissible by the Torah.

נָחָשׁ: Snake

וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה

And the snake was cunning from all of the other animals.5

Being that all the animals were created to serve man, the nachash, with his ability to speak, was most suitable to serving man in that he could act as an intermediary between man and all the animals. He in essence was king of the jungle.

If man had not sinned, each one of us would have two snakes to serve us: one that would travel to the north and the other to the south, bringing us precious stones and pearls.6With all our needs taken care of, we would be free to pursue our ikkar tachlis/essential purpose in life to learn Torah and draw closer to Hashem.

To be worthy of this lofty level, Hashem had to test us. The נָחָשׁ, with its ability to speak, was the most qualified for the job.

But instead of rising to the challenge, man fell and the whole creation fell with him. Adam from the adamah/earth would now have to return to the עָפָר/dust in order to rise again. The adamah was cursed in that now it would bring forth weeds and thorns. The נָחָשׁ had his power of speech taken away from him, and with the painful dismemberment of his arms and legs, he was now committed to a life slivering around in the dirt. The overall curse of the נָחָשׁ was his becoming self-sufficient. With the עָפָר being a part of his stable diet, he no longer looked to Hashem for his sustenance. Not having a relationship with Hashem is the biggest curse of all.

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You may wonder that if the snake was doing Hashem’s will, why was he punished? The simple answer is that Hashem is teaching a lesson to man that no act goes unpunished.

Due to Adam’s sin, instead of having two snakes serving us, we have two snakes continually testing us, the שָׂטָןinside of us known as the yetzer hara, and the שָׂטָן outside of us known as the prosecuting angel. In the evening prayers, we say וְהָסֵר שָׂטָן מִלְּפָנֵינוּ וּמֵאַחֲרֵינוּ, asking Hashem to remove the שָׂטָן from before us and from behind us. The one before us is the one that can easily be seen, while the one behind us is the one intertwined with our very being, our yetzer hara that is so hard to decipher.

Now, when we sin by listening to the snake inside of us, the snake outside of us comes to bite us, as Chazal say: rather than the snake that bites, it’s the sin that bites (as we see from Yosef HaTzaddik, whom the snakes were powerless to harm).

When the Bnei Yisrael spoke lashon haraabout the manna, Hashem sent snakes to bite them. Who better than the נָחָשׁ, the progenitor of lashon hara, to come and teach them the error of their ways? In order to stop the snakes, Hashem tells Moshe to place a snake on top of a pole, and whoever looks at it will live. This was the נְחַשׁ נְחשֶׁת/Nachash Nechoshes, which worked to heal the snake bites, a spiritual healing that caused the Bnei Yisrael to look upward, toward the heavens, reconnecting with Hashem.

The snake on the pole is the symbolism used by the medical profession to symbolize healing, which they profess originated from Greek mythology. Little do they realize that it originates from the Nachash Nechoshes that teaches us that the real cause of disease is sin and the real healing is spiritual, i.e., by fixing up the sin and reconnecting to Hashem.

Chazal say that “what is crooked can never be made straight,”7referring to someone who has fallen prey to the advice of the נָחָשׁ. The נָחָשׁ is unable to walk in a straight path, therefore someone who follows his advice is said to be walking the crooked path. If he continues along that path, he can never be made straight. We learn from the Nachash Nechoshes, though, that if one reconnects with Hashem, then his path can indeed be made straight.

In India, there is a phenomenon called snake charming, where a flute can mesmerize the snake to the point where the snake does not bite. However, the original home to the art of snake charming was in fact Egypt, where the imagery of the snake on the head of Pharaoh played a central role. When Moshe and Aharon first went to the house of Pharaoh, they went stick in hand, which, when thrown to the ground, turned into a snake. The entire house of Pharaoh just laughed at them, saying, “You have brought your goods to an overstocked market,”8to which the Egyptians brought in their young children with their own sticks to perform the same trick. Moshe and Aharon replied, “Only by bringing your goods to the competition can you show the superior quality of your goods,” and their stick proceeded to swallow up the competition. Targum Onkelos uses the word לַחַשֵׁיהוֹן to describe the Egyptian magicians, and elsewhere לַחַשׁ refers to a snake charmer, as it says, אִם יִשֹּׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ בְּלוֹא לָחַשׁ וְאֵין יִתְרוֹן לְבַעַל הַלָּשׁוֹן/if the snake bites because it has not been charmed properly, then what good is the snake charmer?9Rashi says that this refers to the rasha, whose snake continually bites him because he does not possess the tools with which to charm his snake. In order to succeed, we have to know how to charm our snake in order that it doesn’t bite us — a little bit like training a dog!

In essence, Hashem sends the snake in order to test us. Its job is to bring us down, but first it falsely raises us up by telling us how great we are in order to bring us crashing down to earth. The עָפָר/dust is his domain, the עָפָר representing the desire to do nothing, as we see from עֶפְרוֹן who said a lot and did little. The tzaddik is the opposite. He lowers himself in order to rise up, as we see מַשְׁפִּיל גֵאִים וּמַגְבִּיהַ שְׁפָלִים/Hashem lowers the haughty and raises up the lowly. Hashem raised Avraham, who said about himself, “I am just עָפָר וְאֵפֶר/dust and ashes.”

נְחוֹשֶׁת: Copper

נְחוֹשֶׁת is one of the metals used to build the Mishkan, but it is not in the same league as gold and silver. The Malbim in Parshas Terumah connects נְחוֹשֶׁת to the part of the נָחָשׁ, which in itself embodies earthly existence and materialism, whose very nature is to bite man’s heel, causing him to burn up, and to parch him from all liquids, reducing him to earthly matter. The reddish-brown earth of Eretz Yisrael is very similar in color to that of copper.

The connection between נְחוֹשֶׁת and earth is more apparent in the making of the Mizbei’ach. In Shemos, Hashem instructs Moshe to tell the Bnei Yisrael to build a Mizbei’ach from earth,מִזְבַּח10אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִּי and then later the instruction is to build a wooden Mizbei’ach coated in נְחוֹשֶׁת.11 In actuality, the Mizbei’ach was filled with earth, cased in wood, and coated with נְחוֹשֶׁת.

So the Mizbei’ach, which is used by man to atone for his sins, is comprised of the elements of נְחוֹשֶׁת, symbolizing the נָחָשׁ, and עָפָר/earth, the domain of the נָחָשׁ, all of which were cursed (Adam, earth, nachash), all coming together to fix up the original sin.12

נְחוֹשֶׁת is also used in body armor. Like snake skin, armor has scales that one is able to sweat through. נְחוֹשֶׁת also has the quality of being able to sweat.13

This usage of the armor made from נְחוֹשֶׁת is contrasted well in the battle between David and Goliath.14David says to Goliath: “You come to me with sword and armor while I come in the name of Hashem.” Instead of protecting Goliath, the נְחוֹשֶׁת makes him sluggish, whereas Hashem gives David speed and agility.

In the book of Daniel, Nevuchadnetzar, just like Pharaoh, has a dream that is impossible to interpret. Hashem causes Daniel to dream the same dream. The dream has four metal monsters, one following the other: gold, silver, copper, and iron. They represent the four exiles of the Jewish Nation, corresponding to Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Edom.

Greece is the third monster represented by נְחוֹשֶׁת. In מָעוֹז צוּר, which we sing on Chanukah, it says about Greece: וּפָרְצוּ חוֹמוֹת מִגְדָלַי/they were the ones to break through the walls, and, similarly, the nachash is פּוֹרֵץ גֶדֶר, known for breaking through boundaries. Just like sin causes the נָחָשׁ to breach our defenses, so too our sins caused the Greeks to breach our walls.

Greece in Hebrew is יון, its very name representing the theology of the nachash to make us like עָפָר/dust in that they take the yud of יון, which symbolizes spirituality; with the vav they bring us down to earth; and with the nun they try and bury our spirituality in the dust itself.15

Chanukah represents the fight and victory against the Greek culture. On every day of Chanukah we read from the Torah the portion from Parshas Naso in which the princes of each tribe brought their dedication to the Chanukas HaMizbei’ach of the Mishkan. Who better than Nachshon ben Aminadav to open the proceedings — the one who testifies to the spiritual character of what we are looking for in our children, rather than the spiritual nemesis of the Greeks?

Hashem brought us into the land on condition that we don’t act like the goyim; not to seek their ways of נִיחוּשׁ/divination to be like G-d, not to be like the נָחָשׁ who is independent of G-d, and not to be like Goliath seeking the outer protection of נְחוֹשֶׁת. Rather, Hashem wants us to be pure, תָּמִים תִּהִיֶה עִם ה’ אֶ-לֹהֶיךָ, and this is symbolized quite aptly with the pure olive oil of the פַּךְ הַשֶׁמֶן. Nothing else will do; there is no middle ground — either one is pure or impure. It all depends on whether one has charmed his snake or is charmed by his snake.

1Bereishis 44:15.

2Ramban to Devarim18:9–12.

3Shemos 6:23.

4Bava Basra 110a.

5Bereishis 3:1.

6Sanhedrin59b.

7Koheles 1:15.

8The original coals to Newcastle; see Rashi toShemos7:22.

9Koheles 10:11.

10Shemos 20:21.

11Ibid., 27:1.

12See also Midrash Tanchuma11, Parshas Terumah, which connects נחושתto the atonement of brazenness.

13See Devarim28:23.

14Shmuel I17:5.

15Shiur heard from Rabbi Eytan Feiner, rabbi of the White Shul, Far Rockaway, NY (when he was at Aish HaTorah, Yerushalayim); see also the Maharal, Ner Mitzvah, 2, footnote 74 (in Machon Yerushalayim edition).




Miketz/Chanukah: Playing with Fire ~ Rabbi Reuven Chaim Klein

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Playing with Fire

When telling of the future downfall of the descendants of Esau, the prophet Ovadiah (Obadiah 1:18) refers to the House of Jacob as an aish, the House of Joseph as a lehavah, and the House of Esau as straw. This passage refers to the Houses of Jacob and Joseph by different words for “fire”, and conveys the message that the House of Esau will be fodder for that future fire. But what is the difference between an aish and a lehavah? For that matter, what do we do with a whole slew of Hebrew words which are related to the idea of “fire”, but are not quite synonymous?

The most common word for fire is aish. Rabbi Eliyahu HaBachur (1469–1549) in his work Metrugaman points out that most places in which the Hebrew word aish appears in the Bible, the Targumim translate the word into Aramaic as aisha or aishata. But, in some places, the Targumim translate the Hebrew aish into the Aramaic nur or nura. HaBachur admits that he does not know what makes the Targumim use one word over the other. Nonetheless, he notes that most times the Bible mentions a fire that burns or roasts something, then the Targumim use the word nura.

What is the etymological basis for the word nura? Rabbi Shlomo Pappenheim of Breslau (1714–1814) explains in his work Cheshek Shlomo that the letter REISH itself denotes “throwing”, and different roots that use the letter REISH are derived from that. He explains that the word ohr (ALEPH-VAV-REISH), “light”, is related to “throwing” because the light rays which emanate from sources of light act as if they are “thrown” from that source. The object which holds the source of light is called a ner (NUN-REISH), and the vessel within which a ner is fixed is called a menorah (MEM-NUN-REISH-HAY). With this in mind, I would say that the word nura is also related to this theory, although Rabbi Pappenheim does not openly mention that Aramaic word.

There is another word related to this discussion which Rabbi Pappenheim does not explicitly mention—that is, the word ur (spelled the same as ohr, but pronounced differently). That word appears a total of six times in the Bible (only in the books of Isaiah and Ezekiel), and clearly means “fire”. It is the preferred word for “fire” in the Mishnah, where it appears quite a few times (Challah 4:8; Shabbos 1:11, 8:7, 16:5; Yoma 6:7; Beitzah 4:4, 4:7; Rosh Hashanah 2:3; Bava Kama 6:4, 9:4; Sanhedrin 9:1; Avodah Zarah 5:12; Avos 2:10; Zevachim 12:6; Menachos 10:4; Chullin 3:3; Tamid 1:3; Keilim 5:11, 29:8; Ohalot 11:7). Ur was also the name of an ancient Mesopotamian city where Abraham lived. According to tradition, the name Ur alludes to the fact that its king tossed Abraham into a fiery furnace, from which he miraculously emerged unscathed. The Malbim (to Ez. 2:5) writes that ur differs from aish in that ur denotes a smaller fire than aish does.

Rabbi Shlomo Pappenheim of Breslau explains in Yeriot Shlomo that while aish is a general term for “fire”, the word lahav/lehavah refers specifically to a flame which spurs forth into the air. A lahav is attached to a bigger fire, and serves as an outlet for that fire to spread outwards. The word lahav also refers to the blade of a knife/sword. Because lahav refers primarly to the part of a fire which affects things outside of the fire, it was borrowed to also refer to the part of a sharp tool which affects other things. Moreover, because the word lahav denotes the shimmering glimmer of a fire, it also refers to the glistening edge of a metal instrument.

With this in mind, we can now better understand Ovadiah’s prophecy. It means that the fire from within the House of Jacob will spread outwards via the flame of the House of Joseph, and finally burn up the straw, that is the House of Esau.

Returning to fire-related words, the word shalhevet is closely related to lahav. However, Rabbi Pappenheim explains that shalhevet refers to a flame which is attached to a tangible object. He explains that shalhevet is related lahav, but is also related to the word meshulav (“mixed”, see Ex. 26:17, I Kgs. 7:29). In that sense, a shalhevet is a flame that is mixed with some other material which it burns up.

The word lahat refers to the fast movement of fire, which, as the saying goes, “spreads like wildfire”. Lahat is related to the root LAMMED-TET which refers to “bending”, and can also be used to refer to the sleight of hand, which Pharoah’s magicians used (Ex. 7:11, 7:22, 8:3). Both lahav and lahat primarly refer to a flame or a blade, and both terms are also borrowed to refer to enthusiasm.

The word lapid (commonly translated as “torch”) is used when one’s focus is on the object which carries a fire, as opposed to the fire itself. Some linguists creatively connect the Hebrew word lapid to the Akkadian word diparu. They justify this by arguing that the l-sound can be interchanged with the r-sound, on top of which a metathesis can be employed to rearrange the consonants of rapid to become diparu. Interestingly, this is similar to an explanation found in the Radak (to Nachum 2:4) who wrote that aish-pladot is an alternate way of saying lapid-aish.

The word avukah primarily refers to a bundle of twigs used for fueling a fire. As an outgrowth of that meaning, avukah came to refer to any candle or torch of which more than one wick is lit. According to Halacha, some situations call for specifically an avukah (such as Havdalah), while others call for specficially a ner (such as Bedikat Chametz and Chanukah candles), which has only one wick.

The Hebrew word ner (“candle/lamp”) is generally translated by the Targumim into Aramaic as shraga. The word shraga later became a popular Jewish name (much like the Arabic name Siraj is quite popular in the Arab world). The Yiddish counterpart to the Hebrew name Shraga is Feivish. Interestingly, some scholars explain that Feivish, like Shraga, is also associated with the concept of light. They argue that Feivish is derived from the Greek/Latin name Phoebus, which was actually the name of the Greek/Roman god of light. It is a fascinating turn of events that the name of a pagan god was eventually adopted as a Jewish personal name. Nonetheless, Dr. Alexander Beider dismisses this explanation as mere “folk etymology”, and argues that Feivish is actually derived from Vivus (“life” in Latin), making it more closely associated with the Hebrew name Chaim (“life), than Shraga.