Shelach: If You Love Someone, Set Him Free ~ Tzvi Abrahams

Parshas שְׁלַח

If You Love Someone, Set Him Free

שְׁלַח: send

שֻׁלְחָן: table

שְׁלַח: Send

שְׁלַח לְךָ אֲנָשִׁים וְיָתֻרוּ אֶת אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל
Send for yourselves men and they will spy out the land of Canaan that I am giving to the children of Israel.

The first time we see the root שלח in the Torah is in connection with Adam and the Tree of Life. The reason Adam was thrown out of the garden was פֶּן יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם/lest he will send forth his hand and take also from the Tree of Life and eat and live forever, since if he would now eat from the Tree of Life, he would gain back eternal life, which would be contrary to the punishment of death that had been meted out for the sin of eating from the Tree of Knowledge.

וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ ה’ אֱ-לֹהִים מִגַּן עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת הָאָדָם
And Hashem sent him out from the Garden of Eden to serve the earth that he was taken from, and He divorced the man.

Why does it mention “to serve the earth that he was taken from?” The plain meaning is that this was his punishment — having to toil the earth for a living. A much deeper level emerges when we connect the following pasuk where Hashem says: מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִּי/an altar of earth you should make for me. Man was given the opportunity to rectify his sin by building an altar from the adamah with which to serve Hashem through the bringing of korbanos/sacrifices. אָדָם/Adam was created from the אַדָמָה /adamah, and in particular he was taken from the adamah of Har HaMoriah, the exact location where the Mizbei’ach/altar stood. So going back to the verse, which says “to serve the Earth that he was taken from,” it alludes to serving Hashem through the Mizbei’ach of earth from which he was taken from. This is also alluded to in a Midrash that says that Adam was returned to Har HaMoriah where the Gemara says that he offered up a sacrifice from that place.

שֻׁלְחָן: Table

So what is the meaning of שְׁלַח and how does it connect to שֻׁלְחָן?

Sending is used in connection with a mission. When you want something, you simply send out your hand to take it, where the hand just follows the will of the one who is sending it. So too, in Parshas וַיִשְׁלַח, Yaakov sends messengers, angels, to appease Eisav, where the angels do not have a will of their own but merely do the will of the one who sends them. The spies too, in this week’s parshah (שְׁלַח לְךָ), are sent out to do the will of the people. In all these cases, the messengers come back after the mission is completed.

Hashem is sending us out of the garden; so what is the mission that Hashem wants us to do?

Hashem is sending us out on a mission to rectify the sin. How do we rectify the sin? By building a Mizbei’ach and serving Hashem. Now that we don’t have a Mizbei’ach, how can we serve Hashem? Besides prayer, which is compared to bringing korbanos, the שֻׁלְחָן is compared to a Mizbei’ach. Just like the Mizbei’ach gives atonement, so too the שֻׁלְחָן can serve to give atonement by being a place where we give bread to the poor.

שֻׁלְחָן גָּבוֹהַּ: The Higher Table

There is an expression שֻׁלְחָן גָּבוֹהַּ, which literally means “the higher table,” referring to the table of Hashem. The parts of the korbanos that are burnt on the Mizbei’ach are called “the food of the Mizbei’ach,” and the parts of the korbanos eaten by man are eaten in a state of taharah/purity. This eating is considered eating from Hashem’s table. Eating in this way at Hashem’s table becomes a fitting way to rectify Adam’s sin that was done through eating. We serve Hashem through eating in a state of kedushah/sanctity, where not only the food is elevated, but we ourselves become elevated. If we were to attend a royal banquet, would we not feel elevated? If we view our own table as the שֻׁלְחָן גָּבוֹהַּ/the King’s table, then we too can become elevated. 

How we behave around the table tells us a lot about who we are. Do we behave like animals or do we behave like kings? Food is how we sinned, and through the שֻׁלְחָן we have the opportunity to sit together and be elevated — by talking divrei/words of Torah, by sanctifying the food, by thanking Hashem and blessing Hashem for creating us with lackings. If we lacked nothing, then we would have no sense of enjoyment and satisfaction through our eating, enjoyment that comes by eating slowly and tasting the food rather than engorging ourselves just to satisfy our desires. By really appreciating all the variety of tastes and delicacies that Hashem has put into His creation just for our pleasure, it helps to give us a greater sense of recognition of the source from where it all comes.

בֵּת הַשְׁלָחִין is a field that needs irrigation. By sending waters into the field, we are giving it life.

שֻׁלְחָן is a place to eat food, which gives us life.

In order for Adam to live, Hashem sent him away from Gan Eden, using the wordוַיְגָרֶשׁ /divorce. Divorce is when a couple reaches the point where they can no longer live together, and in order to have a life they must now live apart. So too, in order for man to live, he needed to be divorced from Hashem, because only through being sent away from the safe confines of Hashem’s garden does he get the opportunity to come back, having served many years of avodas Hashem/service of Hashem. 

וַיִּקַּח ה’ אֱ-לֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ
And Hashem took Adam and placed him in Gan Eden to work it and to guard it.

The Ohr HaChaim asks the following question: since there were no thieves, what need was there for the garden to be guarded? Furthermore, if the garden needed to be worked, then who had been working the garden since man was banished? It must be, he answers, that the guarding and working was not on a physical level, but rather on a spiritual one, i.e., to be toiling in the Torah and to guard it.

The Torah is compared to a tree of life, as it says: עֵץ חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ. It is also called a לֶקַח טוֹב/good lesson, as in the pasuk: כִּי לֶקַח טוֹב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם תּוֹרָתִי אַל תַּעֲזֹבוּ. With this in mind we can now explain in a different light the following pesukim regarding Adam’s expulsion:

פֶּן יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם
Lest he will send forth his hand and take also from the Tree of Life and eat and live forever.

וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ ה’ אֱ-לֹהִים מִגַּן עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת הָאָדָם
And Hashem sent him out from the Garden of Eden to serve the earth that he was taken from, and He divorced the man.

Hashem has sent us on a mission to reclaim the Torah, theעֵץ הַחַיִּים /Tree of Life, לַעֲבֹד אֶת הָאֲדָמָה/to serve the adamah, which means to toil in Torah, אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם /which we were taken from (where לֶקַּח refers to the עֵץ הַחַיִּים/Tree of Life). We were taken from the Tree of Life lest we regain eternal life, which would have been contrary to our punishment. So Hashem threw us out with the sole intention that we would be able to rectify the sin by toiling through a life of Torah and mitzvos. Through the Torah, the Tree of Life, we are returning to the place we were taken from. This is Hashem’s shelichus; we are on a mission from G-d, and like with every mission, once it is complete, the shaliach returns to the sender. Having safely completed our mission, we return to Hashem’s garden, the גַן עֵדֶן מִקֶדֶם/Gan Eden (from before), where we are now zocheh/merit to eat from the Tree of Life, which gives us life, the eternal life that we originally had but lost.

If you love someone, set him free. If he returns, then he truly loves you. Hashem has thrown us out of the house, sent us away, divorced us, and our only way of return is to show our love. Hashem has given us the unique gift of being free through freedom of choice to love Hashem and His Torah — with all our heart, with all our soul, and with all our might.

Appendix vi

שְׁלִיחוּת יַד: Sending Out One’s Hand

One of the procedures done when we bring a korban to the Beis HaMikdash is to flay the animal. The Hebrew word to flay is לִפְשׁוֹט, which the Targum translates asלְשַׁלֵחַ . פָּשׁוּט means to simplify, and stretching out one’s hand, לִפְשׁוֹט יָדַיִם, is the simple act of שְׁלִיחוּת/shelichus, of sending out one’s hands. When we undress, we לִפְשׁוֹט our clothes; we are taking off the outside layer, revealing what is hidden. Man is מוּרְכָּב, built up from many parts, and is therefore a complex being. Our שְׁלִיחוּת is to simplify things, to לִפְשׁוֹט אֶת הַבְּעָיָה/to simplify the problem. 

Life is a mystery, “a great big onion,” and our task is to peel away the layers and reveal the hidden, to make it less complicated and be an אִישׁ תָּם/a simple man. We do this by simply following our shelichus, to follow the ways of the Torah, which can be as simple as following our hands. The Torah is an extension of Hashem, יַד ה’/the hand of Hashem, which gives us a handle on life and connects us to Hashem. The Torah makes life easy, connecting everything, where everything has purpose, everything has meaning, everything is unified, simple and one, “and on that day Hashem will be one and His name will be one.”

לִפְשׁוֹט את הַשְׁאֵלָה/to solve the mystery of life is really not so hard. If we learn Torah, life becomes very simple. In the Garden we were naked; Adam could see from one end of the universe to the other; everything was crystal clear. But things got mixed up. What was אוֹר/light became עוֹר/skin. We became covered up with skin, and then we were covered up with clothes. Everything became concealed, which gave birth to the concepts of orlah and klipah (different types of coverings). Our job is to unveil the cover-up, to shed light, to take off the orlah, the layers of the onion, to be Hashem’s shaliach, Hashem’s hand in the world by revealing His light through His Torah. To return to Eden, to Gan Eden mikedem, to go back to the state of purity where we no longer need to be covered up, to go back to being עָרוּם/naked in front of Hashem. This is our natural state of being, when we no longer have to be deceived by עָרָמָה/the trickery of the snake into thinking that we need clothing and instead flay the animal part of us, to undress the snake, and reveal the sheker for what it is: a great big lie and a cover-up. 

So our shelichus is very simple: to unveil the mask, to מַפְשִׁיט/take off the clothing, to מַפְשִׁיט/simplify the question and reveal who we really are, and to be naked in front of Hashem, with no barriers, no mechitzos. This can only be achieved through a life of Torah.

The next procedure after skinning the animal is נִיתּוּחַ/the cutting up of it into its individual parts. By breaking up something into its individual components, we are able to see how everything fits and works together. Instead of being one body mass, we are able to marvel at the intricate design and the harmony of creation; we then come to appreciate the Creator.

In the same way, the Torah is the tool that allows us to cut through the surface of the world and take a good look underneath. We can then start to break things up and see how everything works together. We can uncover the שָׁרָשִׁים/the roots of the tree of life and connect to its source.

שְׁלִיחוּת לְדָבָר מִצְוָה: Sending to Do a Mitzvah

There is something called שְׁלִיחוּת לְדָבָר מִצְוָה, whereby someone who is sent on a mission to do a mitzvah cannot be harmed. So too if we follow our mission, we will come to no harm. The mission — if you choose to take it — is not impossible.

There is also the concept of שְׁלִיחוּת לְדָבָר עַבֵירָה/to transgress on behalf of someone, which the Gemara says is not a valid shelichus because someone else cannot do an עַבֵירָה/aveirah and it be considered yours. Rather, the shaliach, as opposed to the sender, is said to be the one who sinned, as he is accountable to the Master, to Hashem, and not to man, who is Hashem’s servant. Rashi comments on the pasuk, “Do not go after your heart and your eyes,” saying that the heart and the eyes are the spies of the body — the eyes see, the heart desires, and the body sins. Just like all spies, they are on shelichus; the heart and eyes are being sent by their owner. So it’s not so much that the eyes see and the heart desires; rather, it is the meshalei’ach, the sender himself, who already desires to sin, who sends out his sheluchim to seek out where he can fulfill his desire. Therefore, even though the sheluchim are on a shelichus l’davar aveirah, in this case the meshalei’ach is guilty.

In short, part of our shelichus is to rectify the sin of eating, which is connected to the שֻׁלְחָן גָּבוֹהַּ/the higher table and to our own שֻׁלְחָן, by serving Hashem through the bringing of sacrifices, by serving Hashem through prayer, by serving Hashem through how we conduct ourselves around our own table and using it as a place to feed the poor.

We were taken from the adamah, we return through the adamah — the Mizbei’ach of adamah.

Our punishment for the sin of eating was the loss of eternal life, so our shelichus from Gan Eden was in order to prevent us from partaking of the very thing that would give us eternal life, namely the Tree of Life. Instead, born out of Hashem’s love for us, He has set us free and has sent us on a mission to regain our eternal life by proving ourselves worthy recipients by observing a life of Torah and mitzvos. We are returning to the place we were taken from, Gan Eden, through the Torah, the Tree of Life.

1 Bamidbar 13:2.

2 Bereishis 3:22.

3 Ibid., v. 23.

4 Shemos 20:21. See Kli Yakar for further explanation.

5 Chullin 60a. 

6 Mishnah Berurah 167:5, s.v., שלחן דומה למזבח. See also Brachos 55a; Chagigah 27a.

7 Bereishis 2:15.

8 Mishlei 3:18.

9 Ibid., 4:2.

10 Bereishis 3:22.

11 Ibid., v. 23.

12 Vayikra 1:6.




Shelach: Spy versus Spy ~ Rabbi Reuven Chaim Klein

Spy versus Spy

Conventional linguists trace the origins of the English word “tourist” to the Old French word tourner (“to turn”). However, Dr. Isaac Elchanan Mozeson—an unconventional linguist—finds the etymology of the word “tourist” in the Hebrew word tor. The infinitive form of that word la-tor (“to scout”) is used, inter alia, to describe the actions of the twelve spies which Moshe sent to scout the holy land. They are known in the Bible as tarim (“scouts” or “spies”). The conceptual similarity between “tourists” and tarim is striking: the Hebrew word refers to one who scouts a land to gather information and the English word refers to one who explores a land for ostensibly recreational purposes. Nonetheless, the twelve spies which Moshe sent are generally known as meraglim—not tarim. What then is the difference between the words le-ragel and la-tor if both refer to spying/scouting a foreign land?

Rabbi Yaakov Tzvi Mecklenburg (1785–1865) explains that la-tor denotes the act of searching for the good, while le-ragel denotes searching for the bad. La-tor seeks to identify the positive attributes of that which is being spied upon, while le-ragel seeks to find its weaknesses and vulnerabilities.

When Moshe sent spies to scout the Holy Land, he did not do so for conventional military reasons. G-d had already promised the Jews the Holy Land and they were destined to conquer that land no matter what. So why did Moshe dispatch spies to scout out the land? He did so in order to strengthen the nation’s conviction. He hoped that the spies would observe all the good of the Holy Land and report it back to the people, who would then be more excited to help realize G-d’s promise. However, ultimately, the spies betrayed their mission and instead began to gather information about the perceived disadvantages of the Holy Land, dashing the nation’s hopes for a “good land”.

Because the spies were originally commissioned to investigate the positive aspects of the Holy Land, they and their actions are always described in Numbers as tarim. However, in the hindsight of Deuteronomy—which Moshe orated at the very end of his life (about forty years after the incident of the spies)—the actions of the spies are described as vayachperu (Deut. 1:22) or le-ragel (Deut. 1:24). The former word is the verb form of “digging” and refers to the deliberate mining of damning information. Rabbi Mecklenburg points out that the word chafirah (“digging”) is related to the word cherpah (“disgrace”), and in the case of Moshe’s spies refers to them “digging” for negative information about the Holy Land. Perhaps we can add that the second word, le-ragel is derived from the Hebrew word regel (“foot”), which is the lowest part of the body. It is thus appropriately applied to refer to the spies’ searching out the lowest elements of the Holy Land to describe in their testimony. Indeed, Rashi (to Lev. 19:16) already connects the word le-regal to the word rochel (literally “spice merchant,” but used in Biblical vernacular to refer to a talemonger or slanderer).

Moshe’s spies are traditionally referred to as meraglim. That term is never used by the Bible to describe these people, but is rather derived from the verb le-ragel that Deuteronomy uses to describe their actions. The word mergalim does, however, appears in the Bible in the context of spies when Yosef-in-disguise, as viceroy of Egypt, accuses his brothers of being spies. In that situation, the term mergalim is used and appears seven times in a decidedly negative context (Gen. 42). Besides the story of Joseph and his brothers, the term meraglim also appears in the Bible to describe the two unnamed spies whom Joshua sent to scout the vulnerabilities of the Canaanite city Jericho before the Jews arrived there (Josh. 2:1). These and other instances of the word megalim/meragel in the Bible denote people sent to expose the susceptibilities and weaknesses of an enemy. (Interestingly, the popular Midrashic understanding is that the two men whom Joshua sent were Calev and Pinchas, however Pseudo-Philo identifies them as Kenaz and Seenamias, the sons of Calev. Another Midrash says that they were Peretz and Zerach—Judah’s twin sons.)

In short, meraglim are spies who focus on their enemy’s weaknesses and points of vulnerability, while tarim are, so to speak, “tourists” who explore enemy territory for the purposes of collecting positive information about their land.download.png




Shelach/Yom Kippur: Pardon Me? ~ Yehoshua Steinberg

Shelach: Pardon Me?

לענשלמהבנימיןבןרפאלתנצבה

Num. 14:19 – Please forgive (סלח) the iniquity of this nation in accordance with your abounding kindness.

Moses, the indefatigable shepherd, begs for mercy on behalf of his nation as is his wont, in this instance concerning the sin of the Spies. The Holy One, ever slow to anger, answers immediately in the affirmative:  Num. 14:20 – And the Lord said, “I have forgiven them in accordance with your word.”” Although as mentioned, the context here is the case of the Spies charged with reporting on the Land of Israel, our Sages comment that G-d’s benevolent utterance applies to the sin of the Golden Calf as well:  Ex. Rabba 29:7 – Yea, I will bear, and will deliver (Isa. 46:4)… “I will bear” – [the sin of the] Golden Calf. “And deliver,” as it says: And the Lord said, I have forgiven them in accordance with your word (Num. 14:20). 

One may ask however, if in fact every vestige of these egregious sins was thereby obliterated through this pronouncement of forgiveness or not? For we find numerous atonements for the Calf mentioned afterwards: 1. The acacia wood (שטים) atones for the foolishness (שטות) of the Calf (Tanch. Teruma 10). 2. The gold in the Tabernacle atones for the gold of the Calf (Ex. Rabba 51:8). 3. The calf brought for the Sin-Offering atones for the Calf (Sifra Shmini). 4. Ex. 32:34-  But on the day I make an accounting [of sins upon them], I will bring their sin to account against them; Rashi – Now I have listened to you not to destroy them all at once, but always, always, when I take an accounting of their sins, I will also account a little of this sin with the other sins. [This means that] no punishment befalls Israel in which there is not part of the punishment for the sin of the [golden] calf.Likewise, we find additional atonements associated with the sin of the Spies. 

With so many atonements required, one is led to wonder what precisely was the result of Hashem’s forgiveness for which Moses begged and entreated? 

We begin by noting that in addition to the root סלח (forgiveness) under discussion, another two roots bear similar general meanings: 1. כפר (atonement) 2. מחל (pardon). 

Regarding כפר, refer to our article on Parshat Teruma, wherein we dwelt at length on the numerous seemingly disparate meanings of the word. In short, Ibn Ezra explains כפרה to mean covering (although Rashi appears to disagree – see article for full analysis); according to which the sin is not “erased,” but is rather shielded from view.

The root מחל actually never appears in Scripture in the sense of forgiveness and atonement at all. However, its derivative מחילה is a very common word in the Talmudic vernacular. But our Sages have left hints as to the origin of this word, in the Midrashim. For example, Midrash Tan. (Shmini 6) states that although כפרה is provided in this world in conjunction with animal sacrifice, מחילה is granted after only death sans such sacrifice. However, the proof-text brought appears unconnected: I, yea I erase (מוחה) your transgressions for My sake (Is. 43:25). Note that the word מוחה quoted derives from the root מחה, whereas מחילה stems from the seemingly unrelated מחל! 

Two points may be gleaned from this anomaly immediately, however: 1. there is no Scriptural root מחל connected to pardon, as stated. 2. מחילה in Talmudic parlance  refers to the utter erasure, obliteration of sins (“absolution”; see also Midrash Tan. [ibid. 4]),  in contradistinction to כפרה which means covering, as above.

Despite the fact that מחה is found in the context of the pardoning of sin in the verse cited in Isaiah (and ibid. 44:22, Ps. 51:3, 11), the primary meaning (and the only meaning in the Pentateuch itself; vis. Gen. 6:7, Ex. 17:14, Deut. 9:14, 29:19) is clearly utter destruction. Since the word itself therefore bears ominous overtones, the Sages may have sought a similar term to refer exclusively to the erasure of sin. Additionally, the word מחילות in the sense of tunnels is used in Scripture (Is. 2:19) to describe a place of refuge. The combination of eradication of sin and refuge from G-d’s wrath is exactly what the potential penitent seeks, and this is precisely the mechanism of pardon conveyed by the word מחילה. 

We now return to the root סלח; given that the word certainly does not imply total absolution as we’ve seen, what then is the unique meaning of this word in the system of forgiveness?

Rabbi S. R. Hirsch (Num. 14:20) as per his wont, comments that סלח is phonetically related to שלח (dispatching) and צלח  (passing an obstacle / overcoming a challenge). סלח therefore means to proceed without delay. Hashem was in effect telling Moses that the nation must avoid getting stuck, must forge ahead spiritually, despite the momentous sins which had transpired. The nation was mired in the mud, was sinking fast in quicksand, and this was not the time to seek perfect absolution of sin. The road to obliteration of certain sins may be long and arduous, and may not even be completed in this lifetime. But the road to ultimate pardon begins with סליחה – “forge on”! 

The three roots סלח, כפר, מחל therefore would represent three different mechanisms, three stages of forgiveness and atonement. These stages could be compared to the stages of repentance described by Maimonides in his Laws of Repentance, beginning with acknowledging the sin and resolving never to repeat it, without which one is stuck, akin to the meaning of סלח described here. The next stage is כפרה, atonement which comes in stages, depending on the nature of the sin. Ultimate absolution –מחילה in Rabbinic parlance, as we have seen– for certain sins can be attained only in the World to Come.

May the Lord grant us strength to forge ahead from peak to pinnacle, to attain ever greater spiritual heights all the days of our lives.

1  [השוה גם: שמות רבה נא:ד; דברים רבה ה:יג, תנח’ וישלח י, תנח’ פקודי ב, תנח’ שלח (הוספה) יד].

2  [וכן]: שמלח:כא – אֵלֶּה פְקוּדֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן; אורהחיים – לא נמחק עון העגל מחק שאין רשומו ניכר,.. וביום פקדי.

3  ספרא פרשת שמיני מכילתא דמילואים.

4  חשוקיחמדבכורות(הערותבכורותל🙂 – בנפש כל חי (מערכת נ אות יד) כתב נראה שהנסכים שהיו מנסכין ביין על הקרבנות הוא לכפר על עון המרגלים… ולכן אחר מעשה מרגלים סמוך ונראה (במ’ טו:ה-י) נצטוו על פ’ נסכים, וכן נראה ממהר”ם רקאנטי (פרשת שלח) שכתב וסמך פ’ נסכים לפ’ מרגלים, לפי שחטאו בזמורה.

5  [כמצוי בתפילות יו”כ ובסליחות במשך השנה. ובתלמוד]: ב”ב קכא. – יום הכפורים יום סליחה ומחילה יום שנתנו בו לוחות אחרונות.

6 Rather it means a tunnel or shelter; see Is. 2:19 + Malbim.

7  [אמנם כתב הערוך (ערך ‘חיל’), שגזרת ‘מחל’ היא ‘חיל’ המציין העברה, כגון: דאחילו… מן שמיא (ברכות יא:). ונראה להציע ש”אחילו” נגזרת מן ‘חל’ – לשון התחלה חדשה (כמו: החלו להעלות עלות – עזרא ג:ו), ושרש ‘מחל’ הוא שרש כפול: ‘מח’-‘חל’ – ‘מח’ (לשון ‘מחה’ / ‘מחק’) ו’חל’ (התחלה)].

8  [ברם, מצאנו לשון “מחילה” (בהשאלה) בתלמוד בעניני בין אדם לחבירו, כגון]: אבותו:א – הוי צנוע וארך רוח ומוחל על עלבונו.תרומותו:א – האוכל תרומה שוגג משלם קרן וחומש… אם רצה הכהן למחול אינו מוחל. [וכך גם הביטוי ביידיש: “מוחל זיין”].

9   תנחשמיניד – קְחוּ שְׂעִיר עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְעֵגֶל (וי’ ט:ג) – שידעו הכל שנתכפר להם על מעשה העגל. אמר הקב”ה, בעולם הזה נתכפר להם ע”י קרבן, ולעה”ב אני מוחה עונותיהם שלא בקרבן.

10  בחילוף אותיות זסשר”ץ. [השוה את פרשר”ה לבר’ כד:כא, תה’ כה:יא].

11  [פרטי ההלכות משתנות לפי הנסיבות כגון סוג העבירה, יחיד ורבים, בזמן שיש קרבנות מול זה”ז וכו’. לכן יש ללמוד את כולן בהרחבה ברמב”ם הלכות תשובה].